Prevalence of Excess Sodium Intake and Their Corresponding Food Sources in Adults from the 2017-2018 Brazilian National Dietary Survey

Excessive sodium intake has been related to high blood pressure, a central risk factor for
cardiovascular disease. In the present work, updated estimates of sodium intake, the main food
sources, and the prevalence of excessive intakes in a nationwide multi-ethnic sample of Brazilian
adults (2017–2018 Brazilian National Dietary Survey) were presented. Based on two 24-h recalls
adjusted for the within-person variation, the overall median of sodium intake was 2432 mg. The
prevalence of adults exceeding the recommended limits (tolerable upper limit, UL, and the chronic
disease risk reduction cut-off point, CDRR) was 61% and 56%, respectively. The median sodium
intake and proportion of individuals above the limits varied according to the subgroups evaluated.
Males and adults (20–29 years) presented the highest excessive sodium intakes, and consequently,
lowest adherence rates to UL and CDRR recommendations. The top food sources of sodium were
white bread and toast (12.3%), beans (11.6%), white rice (10.6%), beef (7.7%), and poultry meat (5.5%).
Given the health benefits of dietary sodium reduction, it would be advisable to enhance the current
national initiatives of awareness and educational campaigns’ combined efforts to reduce sodium in
processed foods to effectively decrease this micronutrient intake across the Brazilian population.

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